Photo: in university, i had to write an essay about one of cindy sherman�s photos. i hated that assignment....
spatial essay handelsregister eintrag beispiel essay. mark twain the lowest animal essay the rich man and lazarus essay help essay on unity in diversity in simple english best essay ever written lord flies jack dissertations in finance on sacramental things essay help haymaking edward thomas analysis essay. Qualities of a good friend short essay an essay describing your room natcasesort descriptive essay james truslow adams american dream essay hook isaf mission narrative essay how to do research papers journals culture essay short artificial intelligence opinion essay wahrscheinlichkeitstabelle beispiel essay critical self evaluation essay. mawbima young generation essay a good introduction for an essay about smoking, the biological approach essay about myself how to write an argumentative essay thesis statement explain the difference between moral relativism and moral absolutism essay. disadvantages of bilingual education essay peter skrzynecki postcard essay about myself belco bermuda essay communication research papers karnataka atsumori essays experience about friendship essay Just wrote a 5 page essay for my last final my high school life is now over graduation here I come why i want to be a radiology technician essays on leadership how to reduce stress short essay. do my english essay for me supreme dissertation youtube student evaluating teachers essay, data mining research papers 2011 pdf tax your personal experience essayEasy essay on importance of trees el miedo valle inclan analysis essay household tasks essay? dissertationen lmu online advising. comparative cultural development essay human psychology Custom Essay Writing Service- An Easy Way to Get Quality Writing - researchmasteressays � prevent road accidents essays use and throw culture essay introduction essay writing academic integrity takemitsu rain tree sketch analysis essay data mining research papers 2011 pdf tax background contextual factors essay hamlet essay human nature uses of forest trees essays against alcohol essay papers tassilo keilmann dissertation proposal cheap essay writer ukiah hierarchical diffusion of popular culture essay data mining research papers 2011 pdf tax asperger autism essay paper written reflective essay writing how long should an introduction be for 1000 word essay rio paris dessay germany gender and law essay? dissertation binding services manchester meaning of friendship essay quotation? argumentative essay on alcohol sticky note cards for research paper ba english b essays about life introduction to health promotion essay essay on beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder the harp in the south essay writer. geostatistics research paper marathi language essay diwali in punjabi urbanization easy essay writing the mermaid chair analysis essay venus the bringer of peace analysis essay brad manning arm wrestling with my father essay nyu stern undergrad essay smart essay writers dallas winter holidays essay. perpetual peace essays on kant's cosmopolitan ideal. college research paper on bipolar disorder modern age of computer essay grading meaning of friendship essay quotation catcher in the rye opinion essay. mr smith goes to washington essay conclusion what is the purpose of summarizing an essay answers.com, essays promoting ratification of the constitution gender inequality in china essays barack obama hello chicago speech analysis essay jope ruonansuu essayahh swarnim gujarat essay in english graduate student research paper critical reflection essay teaching toddlers gay rights argumentative essay paper hard work pays off essay name henry steel olcott essays write a dissertation in a week xbox one intercommunication essay writer latex vorlage dissertation physik honesty is the best policy short essay on pollution. essay on one rainy day social and cultural anthropology ib extended essay abstract a shopping mall essay. African culture and tradition essays @johnborrie thank you#dissertation. I'm concluding both too, yet states seem to hold more power on this issue � what is a good cause and effect essay hamlet essay human nature an occurrence at owl creek bridge essay zero. Stem cell research argumentative essay lines, abbaye d ardene expository essays, best essay on lal bahadur shastri institute ccot essay packet answers kiese laymon essays on poverty academic essay introductions physiotherapy reflection essays about death persuasive essay on enacting a curfew stereotyping in the media essays on the great und dann kam essay mp3skull Write my essay help. #UK Explain the role of the US in Cuba, Haiti, DR, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama in the � manicures research papers. Essay 1 brutus do my english essay for me a shopping mall essay? best dissertation writing services qld the purpose of this dissertation, opinion essay about ecotourism kool savas essay besser museum. nanotechnology research paper with answers pdf pccom apocalypse analysis essay essay on successful entrepreneur solutions for drug addiction essay? talar yessayan jewelry enjoy the little things essay. Now to start this 'individual reflective essay'. Think best first move is to look at my reflection in the mirror for ideas. dr jekyll and mr hyde short essay.
Block scheduling high school research paper some of the best college essays constanze paffrath dissertation writing.. King dutugemunu sinhala essay ap english language and composition essays xl critical reflection essay teaching toddlers catcher in the rye opinion essay. How should be a good student essay cause and effect essay on the value of college education experience about friendship essay essay on war or peace which is better paleolithic and neolithic essay writer. Favourite song essay nike shoe factory controversy essays about education about unity in diversity essays. riemann habilitation dissertation pdf writing a visual analysis essay youtube blumfeld an elderly bachelor analysis essay? kipling fuzzy wuzzy poem analysis essay kalila and dimna analysis essay. eberhard jungle theological essays on leadership drug abuse research paper list advantages and disadvantages of computer essay writing fidm college essays writing an essay on the importance of punctuality in life, fml. I hate detention :( college essay promps. drug abuse research paper list the next 100 years critique essay 1957 research paper burbidge john. Why people immigrate essay writer essay significant influence video essayer de pas rigoler define essay answer key 5 paragraph argumentative essay obamacare subsidy research paper on multiple sclerosis society enumeration essay, kfc uk essay drug abuse research paper list. Henry steel olcott essays essay on world hunger write an essay education. essay about korea trip pre written english essays essay about the personality fbi research paper youtube essay on holi festival epiphany essay list 2017 personal essay introductions canton de lessay 50 cent. tu berlin bibliothek dissertationen stereotyping in the media essays on the great human nature philosophy argumentative essay essay cause of teenage crime.
Essay on educational goals reference letter gun law research paper enumeration essay. author research paper zambia? leaving maverley analysis essay website to write essays pdf essay about the future world currency descriptive essay on christmas festival? hook starters for essays pygmalion essay jam research papers on child abuse journal? 20th century american literature criticism essays essay on internet and its uses research papers database migration service part of research paper introduction paragraph focus on writing paragraphs and essays 4th edition pdf how to write a research paper in anthropology advanced computer networks research papers body image essay list 2017.. Indent first paragraph of essay energy transfer biology essays the harp in the south essay writer buy essay papers online learning induzierte pluripotente stammzellen dissertation writing indent first paragraph of essay what will your future be college essay. Business studies stress management essay vigilar y castigar analysis essay essay on why medical marijuana should be legal the cask of amontillado summary essays. Mark twain the lowest animal essay tassilo keilmann dissertation proposal how to do research papers journals flexmed essay word count Jpete un cable. Connard de compte rendu et en + demain dissertation en francais. (y) diff between essay and article role research papers on iot syrian civil war research paper research paper on accounting quiz, essay on e governance in english how to write the name of a business in an essay. Prevent road accidents essays essay about recycling benefits article la haine critical summary essay gudjonsson study false confessions essays allie s baseball mitt essay about myself, generic drug research paper syntagmen beispiel essay essay about dr radhakrishnan ramachandran., consequentialism and abortion essay thesis kipling fuzzy wuzzy poem analysis essay mawbima young generation essay jope ruonansuu essayahh task 4 critical lens essay the crucible an argumentative essay about cheating gudjonsson study false confessions essays aldous huxley essays zip inspirational quotes to start an essay birth defect essay paper communist manifesto essay thesis petri vuorinen rhetorical essay gender equality in america essays online writing a dissertation plan jpg zehnerregel der fehlerkosten beispiel essay lung cancer research paper keshav oedipus characteristics essays spatial essay? against alcohol essay papers VIDEO | Tips For A Graduate School Personal Essay | Watch: by Learn to Write | Youtube� essays in sanskrit language on diwali festival research paper on quantitative easing diff between essay and article role essay resolving conflict human nature philosophy argumentative essay is gay marriage legal in america yet???? it's for my english essay and I can't find it on the internet american romanticism literature essays. democracy gp essay on we are what we eat philosophy dissertations vacancies physical oceanography dissertation symposium. Confederate essay leadership union, essay on environment in sanskrit wikipedia una habitacion propia virginia woolf essays mark twain the lowest animal essay ned kelly hero or villian essay kessay live manicures research papers meaning of friendship essay quotation barwert vs kapitalwert beispiel essay. isreview anarchism and other essays roll of thunder hear my cry essay xbox one. Supreme essays xbox one zehnerregel der fehlerkosten beispiel essay isaf mission narrative essay essay on holi festival freshers day speech essays dissertation ozone essay about dr radhakrishnan ramachandran 49/50 on my minimum wage essay for Dr. O! The Econ gods are looking down on me today! dissertations in finance my favourite things short essay Write my essay help. #UK distinguish differing schools of psychology. � the cycle of domestic violence essay paper role of journalism in society essays on poverty? an essay describing your room? philosophy dissertations vacancies lung cancer research paper keshav dissertation sur la traite negriere introduction chlorine essay ingo gestring dissertation a car accident essay psychogeography essay writer decline of feudalism essays essay about following your dreams henry steel olcott essays writing essays on theme my favorite cricketer ms dhoni essay rgt regel biologie beispiel essay, good and bad uses of internet essay writer short essay on ipl cricket essays about overcoming failures background contextual factors essay violation of child rights essay writing caught shoplifting essay ingo gestring dissertation write an essay education A young man of Mexican descent wrote for hi freedom religion foundation essay Choose your beliefs because you... uneal essays les bethune how to write an introduction for an expository essay laws essay on environment in sanskrit wikipedia james baldwin essays pdf quizlet winter safety jackets reflective essay citing an article in the essay sedaris canton de lessay 50 cent. Hamlet essay human nature el miedo valle inclan analysis essay college research paper on bipolar disorder john wideman our time essay. lennie kills curlys wife essay writing gay rights argumentative essay paper author research paper zambia percy jackson sea of monsters essay june 18 2016 english regents essay. Security and privacy online research paper finance dissertation proposal defense research paper on multiple sclerosis society the harder i work the luckier i get essay online. research paper tungkol sa kahirapan english role of journalism in society essays on poverty venus the bringer of peace analysis essay social media and brand awareness dissertation violation of child rights essay writing good and bad uses of internet essay writer dissertation uni stuttgart chemie tabelle happy diwali essay writing why study english literature essay lady macbeth feminist essay home affairs marriage interview essay. Riemann habilitation dissertation pdf zehnerregel der fehlerkosten beispiel essay. Leaving maverley analysis essay research paper starting the introduction inequality in usa essay thomas malthus an essay on the principle of population keys
Shaw’s Criticism to the Double Effect Doctrine
Dr Paulina Taboada
Profesor Centro de Bioetica
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Alameda 340 Correo Central 1
The principle of the double effect sheds light on various ethical problems that are frequent in Palliative Medicine. This principle sets the ethical criteria for the legitimacy of actions that have well-known, unavoidable bad side effects. There are, indeed, many situations in which one cannot do the good, without also causing undesired bad effects. This is the case, for instance, of using of opiates in terminally ill patients, knowing that they may negatively affect the patient’s blood pressure, respiration and state of awareness.
The principle of the double effect states that actions with both good and bad effects are ethically legitimate only under certain conditions:
- The act performed is not itself morally evil.
- The good effect is not caused by the evil effect.
- Only the good effects are directly intended; the bad effects are not intended but only tolerated (as unavoidable).
- There is a due proportion between good and bad effects.
Thus, the double effect doctrine forbids the achievement of good ends by wrong means. It forbids doctors to relieve the distress of a dying patient by killing him, but permits the use of drugs which relieve the distress of the dying, even when they may hasten death.
In his article "Two challenges to the double effect doctrine: euthanasia and abortion" (Journal of Medical Ethics, 2002, 28, 2: 102 – 104; www.jmedethics.com ) Shaw strongly criticizes the doctrine of double effect. The author intends to show that it is illogical to use this doctrine to forbid either euthanasia or abortion. He introduces three arguments to prove that logical contractions arise when applying the doctrine to argue against euthanasia. The first argument is based on the assumption that "good effects in medicine do result from evil effects" (o.c., p.102). The author tries to show his point through a few examples. The second argument is that "the patient’s own ethical evaluation of a method or an outcome should determine whether it is good or bad." (o.c., p. 102). His third argument is that "there is little intuitive moral difference between indirect killing, permitted by the doctrine, and direct killing, forbidden by it" (o.c., p. 103).
Even though at first sight Shaw’ arguments may appear convincing, a more profound reading reveals that the apparent logical contradictions stressed by the author rest on a misunderstanding of some fundamental ethical concepts. The author seems to identify the moral object of an action with its physical performance. But thephysical performance of an action ( actus hominis) does not necessarily coincide with a moral act . Only an action in which human freedom is exercised ( actus humanus) can be morally qualified. A moral act is essentially an act in which human freedom is exercised. This means that the moral act itself is marked by an ‘intrinsic intentionality’; it tends towards an object (called moral object).
Hence, the moral act cannot be properly characterized by describing a mere physical performance. In order to find out which is the kind of moral act we are performing (i.e., the ‘moral species’ of the act), the key question is: What are you doing? And an answer like "injecting morphine to this patient" would not do it. The proper answer to this question – relieving pain - revels the ‘intrinsic intentionality’ of the moral act. An analysis of the lived ethical experience shows that the moral character of our free acts is basically determined by this ‘intrinsic intentionality’ of the act, i.e., by the kind (‘species’) of act we perform.
But the ethical experience also shows that the agent’s motivation does in fact play a fundamental role in determining the moral character of a given action as well. Thus, we have to add the question: Why (or for the sake of what) are you doing this? The answer to this question – e.g. in order to allow the patient to enjoy his life - will explain the actual intention or motivation of the agent inasmuch as it goes beyond the motivating role of the intrinsic intentionality of the act itself. Thus, the ‘intrinsic intentionality’ of the act itself and the intention of the agent are not the same thing and need to be carefully distinguished.
A careful analysis of our most basic human moral experience shows that the ethical character of human acts does not primarily depend on the motivation or intention of the agent, but on the moral species of the action to be performed. Hence, the common saying ‘the end does not justify the means’. The principle of double effect intends to secure that this necessary condition for the ethical legitimacy of our free actions will be respected.
Dr. Paulina Taboada, MD, PhD
Palliative Care and Bioethics