by Jeff Hume-Pratuch
Did you know that there’s no such thing as a bibliography in APA Style? It’s a fact! APA Style uses text citations and a reference list, rather than footnotes and a bibliography, to document sources.
A reference list and a bibliography look a lot alike: They’re both composed of entries arranged alphabetically by author, for example, and they include the same basic information. The difference lies not so much in how they look as in what they contain.
A bibliography usually contains all the works cited in a paper, but it may also include other works that the author consulted, even if they are not mentioned in the text. Some bibliographies contain only the sources that the author feels are most significant or useful to readers.
In APA Style, however, each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text. If you cite only three sources in your paper, your reference list will be very short—even if you had to read 50 sources to find those three gems! (Hopefully, that hard work will pay off on your next assignment.)
The APA Style Experts are often asked to provide the “official APA-approved format” for annotated bibliographies (i.e., bibliographies that contain the author’s comments on each source). As you may have guessed, there isn’t one; APA Style doesn’t use bibliographies of any sort. In addition, though, the reference list in APA Style contains only the information that is necessary to help the reader uniquely identify and access each source. That’s why there is no format for an annotated bibliography in the Publication Manual.
PowerPoint slides mayneed citations, depending on what type of information is included on the slide.
If the text placed on a slide is a quote (someone else's words, verbatim) or someone else's ideas in the presenter's own words, then a citation is needed.
If the text placed on a slide is simply a word or phrase that represents a topic that the presenter will be discussing at greater detail, then a citation is not needed.
The table below includes two power point slides (left side). The column on the right tells whether or not the information would need to be cited and why.
The slide at left needs a citation because it uses a word-for-word quotation.
|The slide at left does not need a citation. The words are very general and the image is from Microsoft Clip Art (part of Power Point).|
Coordinating reference lists are typically handed out during or after the presentation.
The PDF of the PowerPoint slide deck below ( click on picture to advance) provides more in-depth and how-to information.
Finally, note that images included in presentations need to be cited. We have a "how to cite images" answer to help with that.