Ap World History Essays 2012 Olympics

Are you looking at AP courses and wondering what the average score is on the AP World History Exam? Maybe you are sitting in your AP World History class now and wondering if you could be one of the students who will get a five on the exam. Or perhaps you have just taken the test and are curious to see how you may stack up against others who have taken the exam. Whatever the reason you are reading this article, your ultimate goal is to pass the exam and earn college credit.

This post will take an in-depth look at the AP World History exam process, let you know how others fared on the AP World History Exam, and explain what a good score means to you and your future academic goals.

Let’s start by seeing how others have done on past AP World History exams. This will give you a peek into how hard the test was in past years, what percentage of students passed the exam with a three or better, and hopefully give you some insight into what chance you have of getting one of those fours or fives that will help you achieve your academic goals.

Take a look at the chart below to see how students performed on the AP World History Exam from 2011 – 2016 using the CollegeBoard’s historical performance data and score trends.

Student Performance on AP World History Exam – 2011 – 2106
Score201120122013201420152016
59.5%6.9%5.9%6.6%6.6%6.6%
416.0%15.7%13.7%16.0%14.2%15.6%
323.0%30.5%29.4%31.9%31.4%29.4%
225.5%29.4%30.2%27.8%29.9%28.7%
126.0%17.4%20.9%17.7%18.0%19.7%
Mean2.572.652.532.662.612.61
Pass % (3 or higher)48.4%53.1%48.9%54.5%52.1%51.6%
# of Students188,417210,805230,107245,699265,308285,351

Trends

What can you take from this chart that can help you answer some of your questions about the AP World History Exam? To start, you can see that the number of fives has ranged from a low of 5.9% in 2013 and a high of 9.5% in 2011. The mean score for the exams has remained steady as well, except for the low mean scores in 2011 and 2013. We will see later why the scores from the 2011 exam may have been statistically higher than other years.

As you can see, the AP World History exam is a challenging exam where nearly half of all students who take the exam do not pass the exam. In fact, only two other AP exams have a lower passing percentage. But don’t let that scare you! Albert has all the tools you need to help you get that passing score you are looking for. We can help put you on the right track with tips on passing the AP World History exam.

Odd Trends

You may wonder why the number of students receiving a five on the AP World History exam dropped significantly from 2011 to 2012. The 2012 exam began to assess student proficiency in six chronological periods AP World History key concepts, course themes, and historical thinking skills. There was another significant drop in fours and fives in 2013, and the percentage of students passing the exam fell to its lowest level in six years. That further drop could still be attributed to the redesigned exam.

Since AP courses and exams are designed to be equal with college-level courses, you do need to put in the time and effort to succeed. The average AP World History score is not the whole story. Your strengths and weakness will play a big part in how well you do on the exam.

What’s a Good Score on the AP World History Exam?

AP exams use a 1 – 5 grading scale. Even though there is a standard score for all AP exams, courses do have different passing rates. For example, earning a five on the AP World History Exam (6.6% of students received a five in 2016) can be viewed in a different light than a five on the AP Chinese Language exam (93.7% of students earned a five in 2016). That does not necessarily mean that the AP World History exam is hard and the AP Chinese Language Exam is easy. You have to look at the number of students who took the exam, their proficiency, and their background going into the exam to see the big picture.

Other factors play a big part in what is considered a good score on the AP World History Exam. One of those factors is what score will get you college credit at the school you want to attend. Those standards are set by the CollegeBoard and the educational institution. To help you evaluate your desires and standing, you must understand AP test scores through four criteria:

1. CollegeBoard Score Definitions

Let’s begin by looking at the CollegeBoard scoring standards so we can understand the difference between AP scores. The Board provides a definition for each of the five scores based on how qualified you are to earn college credit.

One – This is the lowest score on an AP exam and reflects little knowledge of the material, little to no preparation, or perhaps you had complications during the examination itself. The Board offers “no recommendation” on this score and no college will accept an AP score of one.

Two – This score is below pass mark but shows potential to pass a college Human Geography course of similar design and content – but doesn’t get you college credit. Again, a possible bad test-day may explain this score for some. The Board places a value of “possibly qualified” to pass a college course of the same level on this score.

Three – This is the most common score on AP exams as a whole. A score of three moves you to the “qualified” bar, which reflects both your adequate understanding of the course materials and your average chances for passing a similar college course. A three gets you college credit at many colleges.

Four – A four indicates hard study, a good understanding of the course, and high performance on the exam. This score may also show strong essay writing and good multiple-choice answering skills. The CollegeBoard deems you “well qualified,” translating to a B grade.

Five – You aced the exam and earned the highest score! This score means you are “extremely qualified,” and all colleges will give you credit for your AP World History course.

2. Relative to other Test Takers

To give you a perspective of where you fit with other test takers, you can compare your score with their scores in a particular year. For example, if you were among the 29.4% of the 285,531 who earned a three on the 2016 exam, you would be in the group of only half of those who took the exam to pass and should feel good about that. It is not possible to determine exactly why only about 50% of students who take the AP World History Exam pass, but the best-proven method of getting a good score is through your efforts and time spent in preparing for the exam and not the difficulty of the exam.

3. Based on College Credit Acceptance

Your score as a pathway to college credits depends on the college you plan on attending and your desired major. Some colleges accept only AP scores of four and five while others give credit for scores of three and higher. Each institution, and sometimes each department of a school, deal with AP scores differently. That means that an AP score of four may be good enough in the history department for credit but not so in the political science department.

For example, the Texas Tech University in Lubbock accepts an AP World History exam score of three and awards you three college credits applied to the freshman level history course. However, if you want to go to the University of Iowa, you will need to earn a four to get the same three college credits. Depending on your major, AP World History may count towards your major or towards the general education requirements for your degree.

Not all institutions accept a three on the AP World History exam for credit, but more elite colleges take fours at a minimum, and fives earn credit at almost any college or university. So you can see that your school choice counts critically in your assessment. Check the AP credit database to find out the criteria for AP scores for your dream school.

4. Based on Helpfulness in College Applications

Having AP exam fours and fives look great on your college application and are likely to attract the attention to college admissions officers. Having said that, passing the AP World History Exam looks great on your high school transcript regardless of your score. Passing AP courses show your ability to complete college-level coursework which you learned well enough to pass the class. Don’t forget the AP Scholar award that is given to high scorers on multiple AP exams. This will certainly stand out on your college application.

How is the AP World History Exam Graded?

The AP World History Exam contains two parts that will allow the AP graders to assess your knowledge of the historical content contained in the AP World History course. You will have to use the historical thinking skills that you developed in the course to successfully navigate both parts of the exam. Your performance on the exam will be compiled and weighted to determine your AP Exam score (1 to 5).

SectionQuestions Type# of QuestionsTiming% of Total Exam Score
IPart A: Multiple Choice

– Questions appear in sets of 2 to 5

– You will analyze historical texts, interpretations, and evidence

– Primary and secondary sources, images, graphs, and maps are included

5555 minutes40%
Part B: Short-Answer Questions (SAQs)

– Questions provide opportunities for you to explain the historical examples that you know best

– Some questions include texts, images, graphs, or maps

440 minutes20%
IIPart A: Document-Based Question (DBQ)

– You will Analyze and synthesize historical data

– You will assess written, quantitative, or visual materials as historical evidence

155 Minutes (includes 15-minute reading period)25%
Part B: Long Essay Question (LEQ)

– You can select one question among the two given

– You will explain and analyze significant issues in world history

– You will develop an argument supported by an analysis of historical evidence

1 (chosen from a pair)35 minutes15%

The first part of the exam (Section I, Part A) consists of multiple-choice questions that will test your content knowledge by analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources. Section I also contains a series of short answer questions (Part B) and will address one or more of the course themes.

The second part of the AP World History Exam contains the document-based question (DBQ) and long essay questions (LEQ). These questions will ask you to demonstrate historical content knowledge and thinking skills through written responses. It may be helpful for you to go back and review the scoring rubrics. The rubrics are a great way to see how the CollegeBoard grades your essay questions. All written parts of the exam (SAQs, DBQ, and LEQ) make up the general concept of the AP World History Free Response Questions (FRQs).

Multiple-Choice Questions

You are given 55 minutes to answer 55 multiple choice questions, so use your time wisely. The questions are divided into sets of two to five questions. Your score on the multiple-choice questions is based on the total number of questions you answered correctly. If you do not know the answer, you should definitely take a guess because there is no penalty for guessing.

Short-Answer Questions (four questions)

SAQs will address one or more themes of the course. You will have to use your historical thinking skills to respond to primary and secondary sources, a historian’s argument, non-textual sources (maps or charts), or general suggestions about world history. Each question will ask you to identify and explore examples of historical evidence relevant to the source or question.

Scoring – you will receive 0 – 3 points for each of the four SAQs. Most of the questions will have you provide examples of historical evidence related to the question. You are not expected to develop a thesis in the SAQs. Your score will depend on if you accomplished none or all of the tasks set out by the question.

Document-Based Question (one question)

The DBQ measures your ability to analyze and integrate historical data and to assess verbal, quantitative, or visual evidence. Your responses will be judged on your ability to formulate a thesis and back it up with relevant evidence. The documents included in the DBQ can vary in length and format, and the question content can include charts, graphs, cartoons, and pictures, as well as written materials.

You are expected to be able to assess the value of different kinds of documents, and you’ll be required to relate the material to a historical period or theme, thus focusing on major periods and issues. Therefore, it is crucial to have knowledge beyond the particular focus of the question and to incorporate it into your essay to get the highest score.

Scoring – you will receive a maximum of 7 points for the DBQ. Each point is earned independently, and unique evidence is required for you to earn each point.

Long Essay Question (one, chosen from a pair)

You are given a chance to show what you know best on the LEQs by having a choice between two long essay options. The LEQs will measure how you use your historical thinking skills to explain and analyze significant issues in the World History themes from the course. Your essays must include a central issue or argument that you need to support by evaluating specific and relevant historical evidence. You’ll be using specific in-depth examples of large-scale events taken from the course or classroom discussion.

Scoring – there is a maximum of 6 points available for the LEQ. The same method of scoring that was used for the DBQ applies for the LEQ as well. Each point is earned independently and the evidence you present must be targeted to the historical thinking skills that the AP graders are looking for in your essay.

Want to know how to get the maximum points on the AP World History FRQs? Read How to Approach AP World History Free-Response Questions.

Historical Thinking Skills

You may have noticed that we have mentioned historical thinking skills a few times. The AP World History exam FRQs are graded using rubrics designed around those skills. Read The 5 Most Important Thinking Skills for the AP World History Test to get a targeted review of the most important of those thinking skills.

What’s the Best Way to Prepare for the AP World History Exam?

Have a Study Plan

Studying for the AP World History Exam can seem overwhelming because of the sheer volume of the material covered in the course. You should figure out how you learn best and execute that plan from the start. This study plan should begin in the fall and take you all the way up to the exam in May.

One way is to study what you learned last and work your way back to the beginning. You may learn best chronologically so you might want to take the approach of studying from the beginning to the most recent material covered. All of these methods have merit, but you will have to determine what approach works for your learning style and helps you feel prepared for the exam.

Know what will be on the Exam

The next step to preparing for AP World History Exam is to make sure you have a list of all of the key concepts from the nine historical periods covered in the class. These concepts are found in the AP World History Course and Exam Description. You should review the course and honestly assess your comfort level with each of the key concepts. This will give you a realistic picture of your strengths and weakness, so you know where to put your efforts in your AP World History study plan.

See what has been Tested on in the Past

The third tip for getting ready for the AP World History exam is to research what the CollegeBoard has emphasized on previous exams. The AP World History Exam Page lets you go back and see all of the past free-response questions as well as scoring guidelines, sample responses and commentary, and score distributions. You can use these resources to assess your ability to answer AP World History free-response questions. Practice with actual test questions, compare your responses with student responses, and then find out what your score would be.

Explore all of Your Options

There are many online resources that you may use to supplement this guide on approaching the AP World History Exam. You can find helpful tips on all aspects of AP World History test prep. You will know going into your study plan what you will need the most help with so you can target your search to help you find ways to strengthen those areas and make sure that you are ready for the exam when May rolls around.

Do you have to have a book in your hand to learn and want to know what the best AP World History exam prep guide is? Albert has that resource too, read The Best AP World History Review Books of 2017.

The Way Forward

The more ways you can approach your exam preparation, the better. But the key is to have a study plan and stick to it. For the free-response questions, we can’t stress this enough – practice as much as you can because 60% of your total score comes from the FRQs. You will find that you will look forward to the time when you can sit down and take the AP World History exam with confidence to get the score that you dreamed of.

Looking for AP World History practice?

Kickstart your AP World History prep with Albert. Start your AP exam prep today.

"2010 Olympics" redirects here. For the Youth Olympics, see 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.

"Vancouver 2010" redirects here. For the video game, see Vancouver 2010 (video game). For the Winter Paralympics, see 2010 Winter Paralympics.

The 2010 Winter Olympics logo, named Ilanaaq the Inukshuk

Host cityVancouver, British Columbia, Canada
MottoWith glowing hearts/
Des plus brillants exploits
Nations participating82
Athletes participating2,566 (1044 women, 1522 men)[1]
Events86 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)
Opening ceremonyFebruary 12
Closing ceremonyFebruary 28
Officially opened by

Governor GeneralMichaëlle Jean, [2]

Viceregal representative of the Queen of Canada
Athlete's OathHayley Wickenheiser
Judge's OathMichel Verrault
Olympic TorchCatriona Le May Doan, Steve Nash, Nancy Greene, Wayne Gretzky
StadiumBC Place Stadium
Winter
Summer

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was a major international multi-sport event held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler. Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines. Both the Olympic and Paralympic Games were organized by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC), headed by John Furlong. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada and the first by the province of British Columbia. Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. Metro Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to host the Winter Olympics, although Calgary is the largest city to host the Winter Olympics. They will both be surpassed by Beijing in 2022.

Following Olympic tradition, then-Vancouver mayor Sam Sullivan received the Olympic flag during the closing ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. The flag was raised on February 28, 2006, in a special ceremony and was on display at Vancouver City Hall until the Olympic opening ceremony. The event was officially opened by Governor GeneralMichaëlle Jean,[2] who was accompanied by the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge.[3]

For the first time, Canada won gold in an official sport at an Olympic Games hosted at home, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary (although Canada won the woman’s curling event in Calgary when it was still only a demonstration sport).[4] Canada clinched their first gold medal on the second day of the competition and first topped the gold medal tally on the second to last day of competition and went on to become the first host nation since Norway in 1952 to lead the gold medal count.[5] With 14, Canada broke the record for the most gold medals won at a single Winter Olympics, which was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and Norway in 2002.[6] The United States won the most medals in total, their second time doing so at the Winter Olympics, and broke the record for the most medals won at a single Winter Olympics with 37, a record held up to then by Germany in 2002 with 36 medals.[5] Athletes from Slovakia[7] and Belarus[8] won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations.

Bid and preparations[edit]

Main article: Bids for the 2010 Winter Olympics

The Canadian Olympic Association chose Vancouver as the Canadian candidate city over Calgary, which sought to re-host the Games and Quebec City, which had lost the 2002 Olympic bid in 1995. On the first round of voting on November 21, 1998, Vancouver-Whistler had 26 votes, Quebec City had 25 and Calgary had 21. On December 3, 1998, the second and final round of voting occurred between the two leading contenders, which saw Vancouver win with 40 votes compared to Quebec City's 32 votes. Vancouver had also previously bid for the 1976 games, which were first awarded to Denver, then to Innsbruck and the 1980 games, which were awarded to Lake Placid.

After the bribery scandal over the candidacy of the Salt Lake City bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics (which resulted in Quebec City asking for compensation (C$8 million) for its unsuccessful bid),[9] many of the rules of the bidding process were changed in 1999. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created the Evaluation Commission, which was appointed on October 24, 2002. Prior to the bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, host cities would often fly members of the IOC to their city where they toured the city and were provided with gifts. The lack of oversight and transparency often led to allegations of money for votes. Afterward, changes brought forth by the IOC bidding rules were tightened, and more focused on technical aspects of candidate cities. The team analyzed the candidate city features and provided its input back to the IOC.

Vancouver won the bid to host the Olympics by a vote of the International Olympic Committee on July 2, 2003, at the 115th IOC Session held in Prague, Czech Republic. The result was announced by IOC President Jacques Rogge.[10] Vancouver faced two other finalists shortlisted that same February: Pyeongchang, South Korea, and Salzburg, Austria. Pyeongchang had the most votes of the three cities in the first round of voting, in which Salzburg was eliminated. In the run-off, all but two of the members who had voted for Salzburg voted for Vancouver. It was the closest vote by the IOC since Sydney, Australia beat Beijing for the 2000 Summer Olympics by two votes. Vancouver's victory came almost two years after Toronto's 2008 Summer Olympic bid was defeated by Beijing in a landslide vote.

The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) spent C$16.6 million on upgrading facilities at Cypress Mountain, which hosted the freestyle (aerials, moguls, ski cross) and snowboarding events. With the opening in February 2009 of the C$40 million Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre at Hillcrest Park, which hosted curling, every sports venue for the 2010 Games was completed on time and at least one year prior to the Games.[11][12]

Financials[edit]

Operations[edit]

In 2004, the operational cost of the 2010 Winter Olympics was estimated to be Canadian $1.354 billion (about £828,499,787, €975,033,598 or US$1,314,307,896). As of mid-2009 it was projected to be C$1.76 billion,[13] mostly raised from non-government sources,[13] primarily through sponsorships and the auction of national broadcasting rights. C$580 million was the taxpayer-supported budget to construct or renovate venues throughout Vancouver and Whistler. A final audit conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers released in December 2010 revealed total operation cost to have been $1.84 billion and came in on budget resulting in neither surplus nor deficit. Construction of venues also came on budget with a total cost of $603 million.[14]

PricewaterhouseCoopers' study estimated a total contribution to the BC economy of $2.3 billion of Gross Domestic Product, and as well creating 45,000 jobs and contributing an additional $463 million to the tourism industry while venue construction by VANOC and 3rd parties added $1.22 billion to the economy, far short of the $10 billion forecast by Premier Gordon Campbell. The study also said that hosting the Olympics was one of many reasons why the provincial debt grew by $24 billion during the decade. Non direct olympics games cost (e.g. expanded rail network, highways, security, paid time off for government employees "volunteering" etc.) cost in excess of 7 billion.[15] In 2011, the provincial auditor-general declined to conduct a post-Games audit.[16]

Security costs[edit]

C$200 million was expected to be spent for security, which was organized through a special body, the Integrated Security Unit, of which the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was the lead agency; other government agencies such as the Vancouver Police Department, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Forces, and police agencies across Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) also played a role. That number was later revealed to be in the region of C$1 billion, an amount in excess of five times what was originally estimated.[17]

Venues[edit]

Main article: Venues of the 2010 Winter Olympics

Some venues, including the Richmond Olympic Oval, were at sea level, a rarity for the Winter Games.[18] The 2010 Games were also the first—Winter or Summer—to have had an Opening Ceremony held indoors.[19] Vancouver was the most populous city ever to hold the Winter Games.[20] In February, the month when the Games were held, Vancouver has an average temperature of 4.8 °C (40.6 °F).[21] The average temperature as measured at Vancouver International Airport was 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) for the month of February 2010.[22]

The opening and closing ceremonies were held at BC Place Stadium, which received over C$150 million in major renovations. Competition venues in Greater Vancouver included the Pacific Coliseum, the Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, the UBC Winter Sports Centre, the Richmond Olympic Oval and Cypress Mountain. GM Place, now known as Rogers Arena, played host to ice hockey events, being renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Games since corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue.[23] Renovations included the removal of advertising from the ice surface and conversion of some seating to accommodate the media.[23] The 2010 Winter Olympics marked the first time an Olympic hockey game was played on a rink sized according to NHL rules instead of international specifications. Competition venues in Whistler included Whistler Creekside at the Whistler Blackcomb ski resort, the Whistler Olympic Park, the Whistler Celebration Plaza and the Whistler Sliding Centre.

The 2010 Winter Games marked the first time that the energy consumption of the Olympic venues was tracked in real time and made available to the public. Energy data was collected from the metering and building automation systems of nine of the Olympic venues and was displayed online through the Venue Energy Tracker project.[24]

Marketing[edit]

See also: 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games mascots

Leo Obstbaum (1969–2009), the late director of design for the 2010 Winter Olympics, oversaw and designed many of the main symbols of the Games, including the mascots, medals and the design of the Olympic torches.[25]

The 2010 Winter Olympics logo was unveiled on April 23, 2005, and is named Ilanaaq the Inunnguaq. Ilanaaq is the Inuktitut word for friend. The logo was based on the Inukshuk (stone landmark or cairn) built by Alvin Kanak for the Northwest Territories Pavilion at Expo 86 and donated to the City of Vancouver after the event. It is now used as a landmark on English Bay Beach.

The mascots for the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Vicki Wong and Michael C. Murphy of Meomi Design and introduced on November 27, 2007.[26] Inspired by traditional First Nations creatures, the mascots include:

The Royal Canadian Mint produced a series of commemorative coins celebrating the 2010 Games,[27] and in partnership with CTV allowed users to vote on the Top 10 Canadian Olympic Winter Moments; where designs honouring the top three were added to the series of coins.[28]

Canada Post released many stamps to commemorate the Vancouver Games including, one for each of the mascots and one to celebrate the first Gold won in Canada. Many countries' postal services have also released stamps, such as the US,[29] Germany,[30] Australia (who present medallists with a copy of the stamps depicting their image),[31] Austria,[32] Belarus,[33] Croatia,[34] Czech Republic,[35] Estonia,[36] France,[37] Italy,[38] Liechtenstein,[39] Lithuania,[40] Poland,[41] Switzerland,[42] Turkey[43] and Ukraine.[44]

Two official video games have been released to commemorate the Games: Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games was released for Wii and Nintendo DS in October 2009, while Vancouver 2010 was released in January 2010 for Xbox 360, Windows and PlayStation 3. The official theme songs for the 2010 Winter Games used by the Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium (commonly known as CTV Olympics) were "I Believe" performed by Nikki Yanofsky and "J'imagine" performed by Annie Villeneuve.

Three albums, Canada's Hockey Anthems: Sounds of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games, Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Opening Ceremony Commemorative Album, and Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Closing Ceremony Commemorative Album, composed, arranged and produced by Dave Pierce, were released to accompany the Games.[45] Pierce's Music Direction for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies led him to win the Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Music Direction" in 2010.[46]

Media coverage[edit]

See also: List of 2010 Winter Olympics broadcasters

The Olympic Games in Vancouver were broadcast worldwide by a number of television broadcasters. As rights for the 2010 Games have been packaged with those for the 2012 Summer Olympics, broadcasters were largely identical for both events.

The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver, a subsidiary of the IOC's new in-house broadcasting unit Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS). The 2010 Olympics marked the first Games where the host broadcasting facilities were provided solely by OBS.[47] The executive director of Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver was Nancy Lee, a former producer and executive for CBC Sports.[48]

In Canada, the Games were the first Olympic Games broadcast by a new Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium led by CTVglobemedia and Rogers Media, displacing previous broadcaster CBC Sports. Main English-language coverage was shown on the CTV Television Network, while supplementary programming was mainly shown on TSN and Rogers Sportsnet. Main French-language coverage was shown on V and RDS.[49]

In the United States, Associated Press (AP) announced that it would send 120 reporters, photographers, editors and videographers to cover the Games on behalf of the country's news media.[50] The cost of their Olympics coverage prompted AP to make a "real departure for the wire service's online coverage". Rather than simply providing content, it partnered with more than 900 newspapers and broadcasters who split the ad revenue generated from an AP-produced multi-media package of video, photos, statistics, stories and a daily Webcast.[50] AP's coverage included a microsite with web widgets facilitating integration with social networking and bookmarking services.[51] On NBC, Bob Costas hosted the primetime telecast, while Al Michaels did so during the day. Together they co-hosted NBC's coverage of the Closing Ceremony.

In France, the Games were covered by France Télévisions, which included continuous live coverage on its website.[52]

The official broadcast theme for the Olympic Broadcasting Services host broadcast was a piece called "City of Ice" composed by Rob May and Simon Hill.[53]

Torch relay[edit]

Main article: 2010 Winter Olympics torch relay

The Olympic Torch Relay is the transfer of the Olympic flame from Ancient Olympia, Greece — where the first Olympic Games were held thousands of years ago — to the stadium of the city hosting the current Olympic Games. The flame arrives just in time for the Opening Ceremony.

For the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games, the flame was lit in Olympia on October 22, 2009.[54] It then traveled from Greece, over the North Pole to Canada's High Arctic and on to the West Coast and Vancouver. The relay started its long Canada journey from the British Columbia capital of Victoria. In Canada, the torch traveled approximately 45,000 kilometres (28,000 mi) over 106 days, making it the longest relay route within one country in Olympic history. The Olympic Torch was carried by approximately 12,000 Canadians and reached over 1,000 communities.[55][56]

Celebrity torchbearers included Arnold Schwarzenegger,[57]Steve Nash,[58]Matt Lauer,[59]Justin Morneau,[60]Michael Bublé,[61]Bob Costas,[62]Shania Twain,[63] and hockey greats including Sidney Crosby,[64]Wayne Gretzky,[65] and the captains of the two Vancouver Canucks teams that went to the Stanley Cup Finals: Trevor Linden (1994)[66] and Stan Smyl (1982).[67]

The Games[edit]

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

82 National Olympic Committees (NOC) entered teams in the 2010 Winter Olympics.[68] Cayman Islands, Colombia, Ghana, Montenegro, Pakistan, Peru and Serbia made their winter Olympic debuts. Also Jamaica, Mexico and Morocco returned to the Games after missing the Turin Games. Tonga sought to make its Winter Olympic debut by entering a single competitor in luge, attracting some media attention, but he crashed in the final round of qualifying.[69] Luxembourg qualified two athletes[70] but did not participate because one did not reach the criteria set by the NOC[71] and the other was injured[72] before the Games. Below is a map of the participating nations and a list of the nations with the number of competitors indicated in brackets.[73]

Unveiling ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics logo, Ilanaaq, April 23, 2005
A statue of Ilanaaq, located on Whistler Mountain
2010 Winter Olympics Participants

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