Critical Thinking Fallacies Pdf Files

Sources & Resources

Listed here are quality general resources on logical fallacies, as well as sources of information used in the Fallacy Files. Specific sources and resources on individual fallacies will be found at the end of the particular file for each fallacy. If you know of any good resources which are not listed here but should be, or there is a broken link to a resource, please let me know.

Books | Fun | Lesson Plans | Mini-Courses | Online Articles | Web Indices | Weblogs | Websites | Non-English Websites | Bibliographies

Web Sites

  • Fallacies

    By Dr. Michael C. Labossiere. Based on a Macintosh tutorial, it provides short explanations of 42 fallacies, with multiple cooked-up examples. A reliable source, hosted by the Nizkor Project. Also see the PDF version in the "Books" section, below.

  • Silly Syllogisms

    By Fergus Duniho. A JavaScript program that randomly generates a categorical syllogism, and allows one to test it for fallacies. Since a randomly generated syllogism is more likely to be invalid than valid, this is a good test of fallacy spotting. The program also comes with a clear, brief tutorial on syllogisms and their fallacies.

Non-English Web Sites

  • Falacias

    By Walter Jerusalinsky. En espa�ol.

  • Fallacies

    By Dr. Michael C. Labossiere. Labossiere's work translated into Italian.


  • Fallacy Files Weblog

    The weblog that accompanies this website, it includes examples taken from the media and current events, as well as puzzles, paradoxes, book reviews, and links and pointers to articles and books of current interest.

Web Indices

  • Critical Thinking on the Web: Fallacies

    Tim van Gelder's fallacies category in his guide to quality critical thinking resources on the web. Some overlap with this list, but also some differences which may help to give the reader a different perspective. Unfortunately, it hasn't been updated for many years.

Fun with Fallacies

Fallacies can be fun and funny! Cases in point:

  • Dave Barry, "How to Argue Effectively" (PDF)

    Let me put it this way. In terms of arguments vis-a-vis winning, this article will tell you how to do so more often, on any topic qua topic, against any opponent, so to speak.

  • James W. Benham & Thomas J. Marlowe, "Logical Fallacies"

    A unique collection of examples.

  • Voros McCracken, "Change the Subject, and Change Your Life"

    How to argue about baseball; or, rather, how not to argue about baseball. Also useful for not arguing about other topics.

  • Max Shulman, "Love is a Fallacy" (PDF)

    Dobie Gillis is hoist on his own logical petard.

Online Article

  • Fallacies

    By Bradley Dowden. An article from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, written by one of the two editors of that reference work. Consists of a short introductory discussion of the scholarly controversies over fallacies, followed by a long list of named fallacies. There are 164 names of fallacies, though many of the fallacies have multiple names. I count 103 fallacies with substantive entries, though necessarily each entry is brief since the entire article is one long webpage! Unfortunately, the examples given are either short cooked-up ones, or the typical textbook chestnuts. If you can't find a fallacy listed in the Fallacy Files, this would be the most likely place to find a short but sound explanation of it on the web.

Lesson Plans

  • The Language of Deception

    By Joe Miller, Annenberg Classroom Fact Check. A lesson plan on how emotive language and euphemisms are used to deceive.

  • Monty Python and the Quest for the Perfect Fallacy

    Also by Joe Miller, Annenberg Classroom Fact Check. A good lesson plan on logical fallacies from the same people who fact check the politicians, with some interesting examples taken from advertisements.


  • Decision Academy

    Mini-courses are short, online courses. The Clearer Thinking organization's Decision Academy offers free mini-courses on "Rhetorical Fallacies", "Probabilistic Fallacies", "The Planning Fallacy"―which I don't think is a logical fallacy―and "The Sunk Cost Fallacy"―which I'm often asked about―and some related ones on improving decision-making.



  • Fallacies

    A short and spotty bibliography from PhilPapers, but it includes some papers and books not listed in the next one.

  • Select Bibliography of Recent Work on the Fallacies

    Compiled by Hans V. Hansen, and originally published in Fallacies: Classical and Contemporary Readings, edited by Hans V. Hansen and Robert C. Pinto (1995), pp. 339-348. Thorough bibliography through 1995 of the writings of philosophers and logicians.

Acknowledgments: Thanks to C. Leonhardt, Aislinn Pluta, Vance Ricks, Paul Sobolik, and Alfred Uhl. - essay writing service is always ready to give you a hand in custom writing.

Наверное, придется потревожить этой новостью Стратмора. Проверка на наличие вируса, - решительно сказал он себе, стараясь успокоиться.  - Я должен сделать проверку на наличие вируса.

Чатрукьян знал: это первое, чего в любом случае потребует Стратмор. Выглянув в пустую шифровалку, он принял решение.

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